Friday, February 3, 2012

Synopsis of Low Back pain



 Back Pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting 80% of people at some point in their lives. It is the most common cause of job-related disability, a leading contributor to missed work, a price mankind has to pay for their upright posture.

Causes of Back Pain: The specific etiology of most back pains is not clear the common causes like postural and traumatic back pains are among the common, could be a feature of an extra-spinal disease like a gynecological disease.                                                                                                                                                
Age:  some diseases are commoner at a particular age. Back pain is uncommon in children.

Sex:  Back pain is commoner in women who have had several pregnancies. Lack of exercise leading to poor muscle tone. Some women put on a lot of weight during pregnancy and later develop mechanical back pain. As one gets further along in the pregnancy, due to the additional weight of the baby, one’s centre of gravity will shift forward causing one’s posture to change. This change in posture leads to increasing lower back pain.

Occupation: People in sedentary jobs are more vulnerable to back pain than those whose work involves varied activities. Back pain is common in Surgeons, Dentists, Miners, Truck drivers etc.

Treatment- Physical therapy treatment for LBP often involves a wide range of techniques including heat therapy, ultrasound, massage, mobilization, exercise, infra red radiation and education about posture and body mechanics.

Exercises to reduce low back pain: The low back exercise program is a series of stretching exercises and strengthening exercises .The purpose of this exercise program is to improve the flexibility and strength of your trunk musculature essential for your low back care.
1. Mackenzie exercises
2. Cat camel exercises
3. Isometric and dynamic exercises
4. Aquatic exercises
5. Pilates

Stretches:
1. Back  flexion exercise
2. Knee to Chest Stretch Hips and Gluteus Stretches
3. Piriformis muscle stretch
4. PNF stretching, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, is an occupational therapy and physical therapy. It is often a combination of passive stretching and isometrics contractions.


Remember:

1.      While Sitting
Healthy sitting posture is based on the neutral spine position by positioning your hips and knees at 90 degrees. Remember this position is balanced between the extremes of lumbar movement. Remember to choose a properly designed chair to help support the lumbar spine. 


2.      While Walking
Proper body mechanics are also important while walking - try to maintain the neutral spine position while walking. In the neutral position, the legs and arms swing naturally during forward motion. Conditions that alter the normal way of walking, and cause a limp, can severely stress the spine. While walking, always try to maintain your spine in the neutral position.

3.      When lifting 
First find the neutral position. Bend at the hips by rotating the pelvic wheel at the hip joint axis. Keep the safe posture, hold the object securely, and use the large leg muscles to generate power. Tighten the abdominal muscles during the lift to create a stabilizing corset around the trunk.


References:

1.Book Carolyn Kisner
2.Book Karim kha
3.Wikipedia

Dr. Meenakshi Sharma,
Fitness Manager,
YFC - Bhopal

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